The 180° Degree Rule is a basic guideline regarding the on-screen spatial relationship between a character and another character or object within a scene. An imaginary line called the axis connects the characters and by keeping the camera on one side of this axis for every shot in the scene, the first character will always be frame right of the second character, who is then always frame left of the first. If the camera passes over the axis, it is called crossing the line or jumping the line.
e.g: In a dialogue scene between two characters, Justin (orange shirt, frame left in the diagram) and Drew (blue shirt, frame right), the camera may be placed anywhere on the green 180° arc and the spatial relationship between the two characters will be consistent from shot to shot, even when one of the characters is not on screen. Shifting to the other side of the characters on a cut, so that Drew is now on the left side and Justin is on the right, may disorient the audience.
Another example could be a car chase; if a vehicle leaves the right side of the frame in one shot, it should enter from the left side of the frame in the next shot. Leaving from the right and entering from the right will create a similar sense of disorientation as in the dialogue example.
2: Assembly Edit
3: Final Cut
“Never be satisfied too quickly.”
Low shutter speed= more light taken in (Slow Image)
High shutter speed= less light taken in (Fast Image)
Therefore just as shutter setting contributes to exposure (but also influences motion blur). Aperture setting contributes to exposure but also influences Depth of Field (DoF). It is the central factor controlling DoF;
Small apertures (e.g f/16) are used to achieve a high depth of field with the whole image in focus - foreground, mid - ground, background.
High apertures (e.g f/2.8) are used for a low DoF, isolating the subject focused in the foreground. Making it appear sharper against the blurred background.
ND (NATURAL DENSITY):
ND is a camera filter (either built in or attachable) to reduce the amount of coming into the camera, helping one to work in bright conditions and allowing flexibility to control aperture and exposure under different atmospheric conditions. ND filters function with the same purpose as ‘sunglasses for the camera lens’ and do so without affecting the colour balance.
Artificially increases brightness of the image by amplifying the signal of the image censor (CCD). Allowing one to manipulate the brightness of the image without dealing with f/stops of shutter speed. However, this method is usually detrimental to the image quality, producing noise and grain.